Where To Buy Reishi Mushroom Extract [HOT]
In small clinical studies, reishi increased plasma antioxidant capacity (6) (7), enhanced both immune and tumor response in cancer patients (8) (40) (44) (50) (51), and suppressed development of colorectal adenomas (41). Remission of hepatocellular carcinoma has also been reported in a few cases in a single study (23), and a formula containing reishi and ligustrum helped maintain the quality of life in non-small cell lung cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy (48). But a reishi extract was found to have toxic effects in leukocytes (14). Also, patients undergoing treatment for gastrointestinal cancer had higher levels of the serum tumor marker CA72-4 after taking reishi spore supplements (42). Further research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of reishi as an adjunctive cancer treatment.
where to buy reishi mushroom extract
Owing to its irregular distribution in the wild and to an increasing demand for G. lucidum as a medicinal herb, attempts were made to cultivate the mushroom (Chang and Buswell 2008). Different members of the Ganoderma genus need different conditions for growth and cultivation (Mayzumi, Okamoto, and Mizuno 1997). Moreover, different types are favored in different geographical regions. For example, in South China, black G. lucidum is popular, whereas red G. lucidum is preferred in Japan. G. lucidum thrives under hot and humid conditions, and many wild varieties are found in the subtropical regions of the Orient. Since the early 1970s, cultivation of G. lucidum has become a major source of the mushroom. Artificial cultivation of G. lucidum has been achieved using substrates such as grain, sawdust, wood logs (Chang and Buswell 1999; Wasser 2005; Boh et al. 2007), and cork residues (Riu, Roig, and Sancho 1997).
Cancer is a worldwide leading cause of death, and despite comprehensive advances in the early diagnosis of the disease and chemotherapy, it remains a major clinical challenge (WHO 2008). As part of searching for new chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents, hundreds of plant species, including mushrooms, have been evaluated. This has resulted in the isolation of thousands of bioactive molecules that were shown to have antitumor activity from numerous mushroom species, including Ganoderma species (Wasser and Weis 1999; Borchers et al. 2008). In G. lucidum, a large number of chemical compounds can be extracted from the fruiting body, mycelia, or spores. Many polysaccharides and triterpenes, the two major groups of components in the mushroom, exhibit chemopreventive and/or tumoricidal effects, as proved by numerous studies from in vitro experiments and animal and human in vivo studies (Yuen and Gohel 2005; Zaidman et al. 2005). Tumorimplanted animal models have shown inhibitory effects on angiogenesis and metastasis. However, evidence from well-designed human trials is still scarce.
The chemopreventive activities of the mushroom on prostate cancer were demonstrated by a triterpenoid-rich extract of G. lucidum that suppressed the ventral prostate growth induced by testosterone (Liu et al. 2007a). Ganoderol B was identified as the active principle that was able to bind to an androgen receptor and inhibit 5α-reductase, suppressing androgen-induced LNCaP cell growth and downregulating the prostate-specific antigen (Liu et al. 2007b).
Ooi and Liu (2000) reported that protein-bound polysaccharide (PBP) and polysaccharide peptide were able to mimic the endogenous antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) in cancer-bearing animals in vivo. These polysaccharides were also reported to protect the immune cells from oxidative damage (Ooi and Lui 2000). The protective effects of G. lucidum on DNA strand scission induced by a metal-catalyzed Fenton reaction, ultraviolet irradiation, and hydroxyl radical attack were shown in agarose gel electrophoresis in vitro (Lee et al. 2001). Hot water extracts of G. lucidum significantly protected Raji cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA damage (Shi et al. 2002). Hot water extracts protected human lymphocyte DNA only at low (.01% w/v) (Wachtel-Galor, Choi, and Benzie 2005). Two antioxidant-enriched extracts from G. lucidum acted oppositely in premalignant HUC-PC cells under carcinogenic attack (Yuen and Gohel 2008). The aqueous extract protected cellular DNA from oxidative damage, whereas the ethanolic extract damaged cellular DNA, with increased H2O2 production and significant cell-killing effects observed. The results suggested that different effects of G. lucidum could be exhibited by different extractable components in bladder chemoprevention. Methanol extracts of G. lucidum were reported to prevent kidney damage (induced by the anticancer drug cisplatin) through restoration of the renal antioxidant defense system (Sheena, Ajith, and Janardhanan 2003). In contrast, a fraction of ganoderma triterpenes (GTS) was found to enhance the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS)-producing effect of doxorubicin (DOX) in Hela cells, leading to more DNA damage and apoptosis, whereas such synergism was inhibited by a ROS scavenger (Yue et al. 2008). In an animal study (diabetic rats), nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidants levels increased and lipid peroxidation levels decreased with G. lucidum treatment (Jia et al. 2009). However, a direct link has not been established between the antioxidant properties of G. lucidum and its immunomodulatory and anticancer effects, and whether lingzhi acts as an antioxidant or pro-oxidant may depend on concentration and environment.
Some small studies in human patients have also reported beneficial effects of lingzhi intake. A dried hot water extract of G. lucidum taken orally (equivalent to 36 or 72 g of dried mushroom per day) was used as the sole treatment for postherpetic (varicella zoster virus) neuralgia in 4 elderly patients. This treatment was reported to dramatically decrease pain and promote the healing of lesions, without any toxicity even at very high doses (Hijikata and Yamada 1998). In another study, a mixture of G. lucidum with other herbs improved recovery time in patients with herpes genitalis (n = 15) and herpes labiallis (n = 13; Hijikata, Yamada, and Yasuhara 2007).
For evaluating the antibacterial effects of the mushroom, several in vitro and in vivo animal studies using G. lucidum were performed. Mice injected with G. lucidum extract (2 mg/mouse) 1 day prior to injection with Escherichia coli showed markedly improved survival rates (>80% compared to 33% in controls; Ohno et al. 1998). In an in vitro study that used the disk assay (Keypour et al. 2008), a chloroform extract of G. lucidum was investigated for its antibacterial effect on gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis) and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Results showed that the extract had growth-inhibitory effects on two of the gram-positive bacteria with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 8 mg/mL for S. aureus and B. subtilis. In another in vitro study, the direct antimicrobial effect of a G. lucidum water extract was examined against 15 species of bacteria alone and in combination with 4 kinds of antibiotics (Yoon et al. 1994). G. lucidum was found to be more effective than antibiotics against E. coli, Micrococcus luteus, S. aureus, B. cereus, Proteus vulgaris, and Salmonella typhi, but less effective against other species tested. The antimicrobial combination of G. lucidum with four commonly used antibiotics (Yoon et al. 1994) resulted in an additive or synergistic effect in most, but not all, instances, with apparent antagonism against cefazolin and ampicillin effects on P. vulgaris.
Risks. Taking reishi mushroom may be riskier if you have low blood pressure or are taking therapy to raise your blood pressure, are taking diabetes medications, or have immune system disorders or medications.
Summary Although reishi mushroom appears to hold some promise for cancer prevention or treatment, more information is needed before it becomes part of standard therapy. However, it may be appropriate to use in addition to normal care in some cases.
Summary Some preliminary studies have shown that reishi mushroom could decrease anxiety and depression as well as improve quality of life in those with certain medical conditions.
Moreover, a large analysis demonstrated no beneficial effects for heart health after examining five different studies containing around 400 people. The researchers found that consuming reishi mushroom for up to 16 weeks did not improve cholesterol (27).
Summary A small amount of research has shown that reishi mushroom could improve good cholesterol or blood sugar. However, the majority of the research indicates that it does not improve cholesterol, blood sugar or antioxidants in the body.
For example, 50 grams of reishi mushroom itself may be comparable to approximately 5 grams of the mushroom extract. Doses of the mushroom extract vary but typically range from approximately 1.5 to 9 grams per day (27).
Summary The dose of reishi mushroom varies based on the form of the fungus, so it is important to know which form you are using. Consuming the mushroom itself provides higher doses, while extracts provide lower doses.
Summary Some studies of reishi mushroom have not provided safety information, but others have reported that several months of taking it is likely safe. Nonetheless, several cases of severe liver damage have been associated with reishi extract.
For thousands of years, reishi mushrooms have been revered in Traditional Chinese Medicine for their adaptogenic and healthful qualities. At one time, the esteemed fungi, Ganoderma lucidum, was reserved for the ruling class. Present day, it can be found in herb cabinets worldwide. Our whole organic reishi mushroom tops can be decocted as large batches of reishi mushroom tea or extract. 041b061a72